**Grade 8:**

Referring to the system {5u + v = 21, 10u + 3v = 48}, one middle-of-the-road kid explained excitedly to her friend, "Oh! I got it! If 5u + v = 21, then 10u + 2v must equal 42. If you put that here into the second equation, then you will still have 1v on the left side. Which means that 42 + v = 48, and v must equal 6!"

Not bad for being day 1 of systems algebra. (Of course, they've been doing the same reasoning using shapes and visual substitution for several days now, so the transition to symbols was seamless. I didn't bother with even any examples on the board this year, and it worked out just fine without one.)

I went up to a boy who was one worksheet ahead, and pointed at the equation {y + 6x = 10,

y + 2x = 2} to ask him what immediate conclusion he could draw based on inspection. He immediately said, "X is 10 minus 2, divided by 4." I had to backtrack to ask him, "How do you know? Because 8 is equal to....?"

He finished my sentence, "4x." Great, now we're talking about the process.

I showed him the traditional notation for showing that work / reasoning via elimination, even though I know that in his head he's doing substitution from one (smaller) equation into the other.

y + 6x = 10

__-(y + 2x = 2)__

4x = 8

He was not impressed, nor surprised. When you introduce systems via pictures, the symbols become just part of the bigger concept. I explained to him that on the previous worksheet, I had let them just do much of it in their heads, but now we're going to work on the written communication piece, to carefully show our work on paper. I also gave him the hint that sometimes, instead of subtracting the smaller equation, he'll notice that he wants to add the equations instead. I said that he'll know when addition is necessary, because those equations will just "feel different." I left him on just that hint, and sure enough, 20 or so minutes later, when I came back, he had already identified the equations that needed to be added, and he was ruminating over the explicit mathematical reasons why that works. At that point, I felt that he was ready to discuss that if you have additive inverses, then you can just add them to cancel them, so we had a 1-minute discussion about that and I left him again.

I am very pleased with how this unit is going. I think I've gotten it down pretty pat; if I remember correctly, last year I didn't have to change any worksheets at all, and so far I haven't had to alter any worksheet either. This is one unit where I can just sit back and watch the kids' thinking unfold, more or less, and I can be very hands-off in their own building of the concepts of algebraic substitution and elimination. At some point, I looked around the room when I noticed the noise level rise, and saw that it was because literally every pair of kids is engaged in some sort of intense mathematical discussion with their neighbor. Awesome-o!

**Grade 9:**

In Grade 9, we've been working on learning / understanding / memorizing geometry area formulas via cutting and pasting. We each re-arranged, glued down a parallelogram to form a rectangle, to help them understand why A=bh for a parallelogram. Then, we each re-arranged a trapezoid into a thin parallelogram, to help them understand why A=(b

_{1}+b

_{2})(h/2) for a trapezoid. This year, I went a step further and highlighted the base 1 and base 2 sides using a green marker, so that the kids can see that they line up within the parallelogram when we do a "move and flip" of the top half of the trapezoid. This simple highlighting technique is superbly visual for my visual learners to see why the new parallelogram base MUST be (b

_{1}+b

_{2}).

Then, I proceeded to give them two practice trapezoid problems. In both cases, I had them draw out the parallelogram that it becomes, labeling the side lengths to emphasize the numerical connection between the trapezoid and its resulting parallelogram. It worked great! My concrete thinkers really latched on after the first example. One of the weakest kids in my class went up to the board and bravely (and correctly) drew out the trapezoid, its new parallelogram dimensions, and the calculated area, without any previous verification that he was on track. I was proud!!

I just love geometry lessons like this, because they involve both tactile and visual learners and help the concept "stick" in their heads. Slowly, I'm getting their geometry concepts up and running in order to do the 3-D project this year.

Addendum March 4, 2013: Here is a visual that Lara has made on Pinterest. Thanks, Lara!

**Grade 7:**

In Grade 7, we've also been doing Geometry... I'll have to report on that at another time, but I wanted to say that recently (prior to the Geometry unit), I discovered the

*best*technique for teaching setting up of proportions. For ages it used to bother me that kids would not check that two ratios have matching units across the numerators (and across the denominators), and so half the time they would set up incorrect proportions. I figured out a trick this year. The first day we learned to set up proportions, I had them highlight the matching units across the equal sign. For that whole first day, they had to always highlight the units inside the proportions, and check that the matching colors lined up horizontally. After that first day, the highlighters went away and I never referred to them again. In the end, I didn't have a single kid mix up the positions of the numbers inside the proportions on the test. I think that mentally, the colors stuck with them and they're always visualizing that check, even when the highlighters aren't around anymore.

Again, slowing the kids down in the beginning definitely pays off, I think. The highlighters are a trick that I'm trying to use more and more, to incorporate hidden visualization techniques that some of us "math people" tend to internalize in our minds but that teenagers who are used to rushing through things, could need more explicit instruction on. So far, so good.

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